apathy meaning – The Crocodile

The choice of osteoarthritis as an appropriate control group was based on the age range of the patient population and the facts that the condition is chronic, progressive, and causes significant levels of disablement.

apathy definition quizlet – Apathy In Parkinson’s Disease

APATHYApathy is a lack of feeling, emotion, interest, or concern about something. Positive psychology is a field of psychology dedicated to building upon a person’s strengths and focusing on the positive aspects of personality rather than scrutinizing and labeling the negative aspects. In positive psychology, apathy is indicative of a person’s uncertainty about the capacity to complete a task. A positive psychologist might argue apathetic voters feel ill-equipped to identify the proper candidate or be unsure their votes will count.

More general cognitive impairment in the apathetic patients was revealed by the CAMCOG. Memory function was affected, although some of this deficit might be related to executive processes, including working memory or encoding strategy, 58 and performance on a range of memory tests correlate with executive dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease. 59 Similarly, scores on the language subscale of the CAMCOG were also reduced in the high apathy Parkinson’s disease patients, although this scale includes a test of verbal fluency. More research will be needed to elucidate further any relation between apathy and non-executive aspects of cognition.

We confirm that apathy is more common in patients with FTD than in those with DAT. When present, apathy usually involves changes in affect, behavior, and cognition. It is associated with the co-occurrence of major mood or behavioral disturbances that may not be anticipated if physicians focus too closely on the apathy itself.

Apathy means a lack of emotion, feeling, concern or passion. It means you don’t have any interest in anything that is usually thought to be interesting or exciting. Apathy is more common in teenagers and also in the elderly.

This form, which can be called ‘cognitive inertia’, refers to the reduction in GDB due to impairments in the cognitive functions needed to elaborate the plan of actions. It results from impairments in several executive functions that are needed to plan and carry out GDB, such as impairments in planning, working memory, rule-finding and set-shifting. Patients may therefore be apathetic as a result of working memory and planning deficits (maintenance and mental manipulation of goals and subgoals), difficulty in generating new rules or strategies or difficulty in shifting from one mental and behavioral set to another. Specific cognitive tasks, such as the Wisconsin Card Sorting task (rule-finding, maintenance and set-shifting), the Tower of London task (planning) or the literal fluency task (self-activation of cognitive strategies), can be used to detect this cognitive inertia.

The apathetic may lack a sense of purpose, worth, or meaning in their life An apathetic person may also exhibit insensibility or sluggishness. In positive psychology , apathy is described as a result of the individuals feeling they do not possess the level of skill required to confront a challenge (i.e. ” flow “). It may also be a result of perceiving no challenge at all (e.g. the challenge is irrelevant to them, or conversely, they have learned helplessness ). Apathy may be a sign of more specific mental problems such as schizophrenia or dementia However, apathy is something that all people face in some capacity. It is a natural response to disappointment, dejection, and stress. As a response, apathy is a way to forget about these negative feelings. citation needed This type of common apathy is usually only felt in the short-term and when it becomes a long-term or even lifelong state is when deeper social and psychological issues are most likely present.

Of the predictor variables, carer-rated change in everyday skills, self-care, and apathy (component 2) were the most significant predictor of death within 2.5 years from PiPPIN assessment (Wald statistic = 8.119, p = 0.004, Exp(B) = 2.912, confidence interval = >1 1.396-6.075; table 5 ). An Exp(B) value >1 (and confidence intervals both >1) indicated that increases in component 2 (weighted toward the carer-rated Apathy Evaluation Scale, 22 Neuropsychiatric Inventory apathy subscore, 23 and Cambridge Behavioral Inventory 24 subscores of everyday skills, self-care, sleep, and motivation) significantly increased the odds of death within the 2.5-year time period. All patient groups scored significantly higher than controls on component 2 ( figure 1 ).

People with depression commonly feel sad and low. In contrast, a person with apathy shows a lack of emotion, either happy or sad. You may feel that even everyday activities such as walking are not worth the effort. Carers, family members or strangers may feel that the person is being lazy, difficult or uncaring. In fact, apathy is a symptom of Parkinson’s, and you cannot voluntarily change the way you feel.

Apathy causes a general lack of motivation and interest, as well as a dampening of emotional expression. Hobbies and social activities may no longer bring enjoyment, and daily routines may require more energy. Basic tasks may be difficult to start and complete.

Now, research led by the University of Exeter and presented at the Alzheimer’s Association International Conference in LA has analysed 4,320 people with Alzheimer’s disease from 20 cohort studies, to look at the prevalence of apathy over time.

Survival ranged from 22 to 910 days after assessment (PSP 64-881 days, CBS 22-791 days, PPA 308-910 days, bvFTD 261-761 days). Of the 124 patients, 42 had died at 24 months, including 20 PSP, 11 CBS, 3 PPA, and 8 bvFTD, 81 were alive, and one had insufficient follow-up time. At 36 months, 55 patients had died including 22 PSP, 18 CBS, 6 PPA, and 9 bvFTD, 39 were alive, and 30 had insufficient follow-up time.

The American Parkinson Disease Association (APDA) is the largest grassroots network dedicated to fighting Parkinson’s disease (PD) and works tirelessly to help the approximately one million with PD in the United States live life to the fullest in the face of this chronic, neurological disorder. Founded in 1961, APDA has raised and invested more than $185 million to provide outstanding patient services and educational programs, elevate public awareness about the disease, and support research designed to unlock the mysteries of PD and ultimately put an end to this disease.

Therapy can help people identify what is triggering their apathy. Once a therapist helps a person determine some potential causes of apathy, they may work with their client to develop strategies for overcoming apathy. For example, someone may attend therapy for apathy brought on by social anxiety They might determine that in their case, apathy is caused by avoiding and blocking out uncomfortable feelings that arise when they attend social events, and they may then work with their therapist to learn skills for processing difficult feelings associated with social anxiety.

Whilst apathy is a common syndrome associated with altered motivation 2 , 12 , it is also frequently comorbid with other states which may have symptoms of reduced motivation, particularly depression, anhedonia and fatigue 3 , 4 , 15 , 16 This raises the question of the extent to which apathy can be meaningfully distinguished from these other conditions and whether they might perhaps be associated with discrete dimensions of apathy in healthy individuals.

Depression: Apathy is a common symptom of depression Individuals who experience depression may suddenly feel uninterested in activities they once enjoyed. You may feel a lack of passion or motivation if you experience apathy. It can affect your behavior and ability to complete daily activities.

People experiencing apathy may struggle with defeating their feelings of indifference. An important first step in combating apathy that occurs alone or as a symptom of a mental health condition is to identify any possible triggers or causes and make adjustments to eliminate those triggers from one’s life. Changing a daily routine by adding new activities and scheduling enough events to fill the day can also help keep the mind busy and help prevent apathy. A person can also make small goals and direct personal areas of strength toward those goals or make a larger goal to work toward slowly.

Power calculations entailed the revisiting of our logistic regression model with 3 variables: group (FTD vs DAT) and the 2 Helmert contrasts. Power of the hypothesis tests for a binary predictor variable in logistic regression is a function of α level, sample size, effect size, event rate, and distribution of predictor variable. 15 Hypothesis tests with our sample of 549 participants were performed at an α level of05. Of the 549 participants in this study, 92 (17%) had FTD and 321 (59%) had apathy. Among the 321 participants with apathy, 114 (36%) had affective apathy. The baseline event rate for the included behavioral disturbances ranged from 2% to 25%.

The assessment of the two groups was identical with the exception that the Hoehn and Yahr disease progression staging was measured only in the Parkinson’s disease sample. Disability was assessed by a self report activities of daily living (ADL) scale used in previous studies comparing Parkinson’s disease and osteoarthritis patients, 37 and on the Schwab and England scale (SE). 38 While this latter scale is generally used only in Parkinson’s disease, it provides a useful global rating (0-100) of independence and performance on instrumental activities of daily living and is therefore of value in comparing the two samples.APATHY

Although considered a distinctive symptom, apathy overlaps both conceptually and clinically with a range of other behavioural and psychological factors. These include mood (particularly depression), anhedonia, aspects of personality, and cognitive function. These will be discussed briefly in turn.



Because apathy can coincide with other non-motor symptoms but can also mimic other non-motor symptoms, it is important to discuss your feelings of apathy with your doctor. He or she may want to evaluate you for depression and cognitive difficulties, which are two non-motor symptoms that can be treated with medications. He or she may also want to test you for medical conditions that could potentially contribute to the overall clinical picture such as Vitamin B12 deficiency or hypothyroidism.

M. Skorvanek, P. MartinezMartin, N. Kovacs. I. Zezula, M. Rodrigues-Violante, J.C. Corvol, et al., Relationship between the MDA-UPDS and Quality of Life: a large multicenter study of 3206 patients, Park. Relat. Disord. 2018;52: 83-89.

The AES-C is a validated 18-item instrument used to assess cognitive, behavioral, emotional and other symptoms of apathy. Clinicians rate each item based on verbal and nonverbal information provided by the participant. Item scores range from 1 (not at all characteristic) to 4 (a lot characteristic). Total scores range from 18 to 72 where higher derived scores indicate more severe apathy. The Least Squares (LS) Mean Value was calculated from a mixed model repeated measures (MMRM) model with terms of treatment, pooled investigator, visit, treatmentvisit, baseline, and baselinevisit.

The CGI-S measures severity of illness at the time of assessment compared with start of treatment. Scores range from 1 (normal, not at all ill) to 7 (among the most extremely ill patients). The LS Mean Value was calculated from an MMRM model with terms of treatment, pooled investigator, visit, treatmentvisit, baseline, and baselinevisit.


If an apathetic syndrome resulting from a focal lesion within the striatum, the globus pallidus or the thalamus can be explained by a disruption of a functional circuit leading to a failure of activation in the prefrontal targets, how can one explain apathy in PD, where there are virtually no direct lesions of these structures but rather a cascade of dysfunctions secondary to the loss of striatal dopamine innervation? Recently, using Starkstein’s apathy scale ( Starkstein et al., 1992 ), we demonstrated a significant difference in the severity of apathy between the ‘off’ and ‘on’ states in fluctuating PD patients, suggesting that apathy in PD is at least partly a dopamine-dependent syndrome ( Czernecki et al., 2002 ).

Global cognitive function was assessed with the Cambridge examination of cognition in the elderly (CAMCOG) 40 and the mini-mental state examination (MMSE). 41 The former test provides a more thorough assessment of cognition and has been shown to be useful in the identification of dementia in Parkinson’s disease. 42 To supplement these measures, three tests of executive function were included: the modified Wisconsin card sort test (WCST), 43 the Stroop interference task, 44 and a test for verbal fluency (the controlled word association test, COWAT”). 45 Category fluency (animal names)—a part of the CAMCOG—was also analysed separately.

They found a significantly higher severity and frequency of apathy in participants with Parkinson’s disease compared with dystonia controls. In all, 51% of patients with Parkinson’s scored positive for apathy on the Marin Apathy Evaluation Scale, compared with 20% of controls. In addition, patients with Parkinson’s had significantly higher mean scores than controls, indicating a greater degree of apathy among the former.

Apathy can interfere with a person’s commitment to exercise, participation in therapy, or engagement in social opportunities, which makes it a big challenge for people with PD who, more than most, need to engage in these activities to stay as mobile and cognitively engaged as possible. Withdrawing from the things, activities and people you once enjoyed can have negative effects on your physical and mental health, so it is important to maintain at least some of the these elements despite the challenges of apathy.

More general cognitive impairment in the apathetic patients was revealed by the CAMCOG. Memory function was affected, although some of this deficit might be related to executive processes, including working memory or encoding strategy, 58 and performance on a range of memory tests correlate with executive dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease. 59 Similarly, scores on the language subscale of the CAMCOG were also reduced in the high apathy Parkinson’s disease patients, although this scale includes a test of verbal fluency. More research will be needed to elucidate further any relation between apathy and non-executive aspects of cognition.

Apathy can be misinterpreted as laziness, poor initiative or depression. And while it oftentimes is a feature of depression, apathy may occur on its own in Parkinson’s. Aarsland D, Larsen JP, Goek Lim N, et al. Range of neuropsychiatric disturbances in patients with Parkinson’s disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry1999;67:492-6.

This form, which can be called ‘cognitive inertia’, refers to the reduction in GDB due to impairments in the cognitive functions needed to elaborate the plan of actions. It results from impairments in several executive functions that are needed to plan and carry out GDB, such as impairments in planning, working memory, rule-finding and set-shifting. Patients may therefore be apathetic as a result of working memory and planning deficits (maintenance and mental manipulation of goals and subgoals), difficulty in generating new rules or strategies or difficulty in shifting from one mental and behavioral set to another. Specific cognitive tasks, such as the Wisconsin Card Sorting task (rule-finding, maintenance and set-shifting), the Tower of London task (planning) or the literal fluency task (self-activation of cognitive strategies), can be used to detect this cognitive inertia.

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